Database management is a method for managing the data that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users, modifying it as necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being corrupted by unexpected failure. It is an integral part of the entire informational infrastructure of a company which supports decision-making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM among others developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory, to supporting complicated financial accounting functions, and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that organizes data in accordance with a specific pattern, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, called attributes, which provide information about the data entities. Relational models, created by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type currently. This model is based upon normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It is also easier to update data because it doesn't require changing many sections of the databases.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support various types of databases, by providing different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational concerns, such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of different external views that are based on different models of data and may also include virtual tables that are computed using generic data in order to improve the performance.